Based on the information provided by the census poll performed in year 2003, there are 620 145 citizens residing on the territory of the Montenegro. The latter results of the census poll of year 2011 clearly indicate that there are 620 029 citizens in Montenegro, with a minor change over the course of 8 years.

Today the population of Montenegro can be described as international and multiethnic, with no ethnic group forming an obvious vast demographic majority. The biggest ethnic groups residing in the country today are: Montenegrins, Serbs, Bosniaks, Albanians, Croats

History of demographics

During the historical period prior to 17th century Montenegro had very little amount of history recorded on paper in historical chronicles. Between 15th and 17th centuries, there was a big wave of immigration: many ethnic Montenegrins have relocated to the area known as Rascia. Later, in 18th century, ethnic composition was quite solid: the vast majority of population was of local Slavic nationality.

Looking back at the data provided by historical census poll performed back in years 1863 and 1864, back at the time the Principality of Montenegro had an overall of 196 230 recorded residents living on the territory of the principality.

Below you can find information about demographics of Montenegro throughout 20th century:


YearPopulationGrowth
1900311 564n/a
1909317 856+2.0%
1921311 341-2.0%
1931360 044+15.6%
1953419 873+16.6%
1971529 604+26.1%
1981584 310+10.3%
1991615 035+5.3%
2003620 145+0.8%
2011620 029+0.0%

Language and ethnic structure

Montenegro has one legal official language – Montenegrin, which in its’ nature is a variety of Serbo-Croatian language. However, apart from that, the following languages are recognized and can be commonly met on the streets: Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian. Despite that as well as ethnic diversity, Montenegrin language remains especially dominant for the part of population under 18 years old. is the plurality mother tongue of the population under 18 years of age.

The population of Montenegro can be described as international and multiethnic, with no ethnic group forming an obvious vast demographic majority. The biggest ethnic groups residing in the country today are: Montenegrins, Serbs, Bosniaks, Albanians, Croats. It is important to underline that the ratio of ethnic Montenegrins and Serbs constantly changes every year, as many residents have ancestors of both – Montenegrin and Serb, ethnicities and the way they perceive their nationality and ethnicity changes over time.

According to the census poll of year 2011, the population of Montenegro has the following ethnic structure:


NationalityPopulation%
Montenegrins278 86545.0
Serbs178 11028.7
Bosniaks53 6058.6
Albanians30 4394.9
Muslims20 5373.3
Croats6 0210.9
Romani5 2510.8
Yugoslavs1 1540.2
Macedonians9000.1
Others / undeclared30 5474.9

Religion among population

Big stone church with golden crosses.

During its’ long history, Montenegro was a religious crossroad for two major religions: Christianity and Islam. Historically the biggest part of the population had been devoted followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church. As of today, Serbian Orthodox Church is the most wide-spread religion in the country (roughly 72%) and has the most followers and support among the population.

Another biggest non-Christian religion in Montenegro is Islam. The number of followers of the Islam in Montenegro equals to roughly 19% of the overall population of the country. Most of the Muslim population are Sunni. Back in year 2012 the government of Montenegro had passed a bill, which accepts and proclaims Islam as an official religion of Montenegro and grants wide variety of civil and religious rights to the followers of Islam, including right to wear hijab and duty to serve halal food in the state and military service.